General Studies Student Council

By-laws

Introduction
Article I.         Membership
Article II.       Officers
Article III.      Elections
Article IV.      Appointments
Article V.        Resignations
Article VI.      Impeachments
Article VII.     Successions
Article VIII.   Meetings
Article IX.      Executive Board
Article X.       Committees
Article XI.     Amendments
Appendix A.  Definitions
Appendix B.  Forms
Appendix C.  Handbooks
Appendix D.  Organizational Charts
Appendix E.  Standards of Visual Identity

Introduction

The following set of by-laws shall govern the General Studies Student Council and its members in all relevant situations. These by-laws are intended to address both the unique situations and daily activities of the GSSC by preserving the rights of the individual and obeying the will of the majority. These by-laws shall remain subservient to the General Studies Student Council Constitution and the policies of Columbia University in the City of New York. The primary goal of these by-laws is to provide an operating structure for the GSSC, so that its members may serve their fellow students to their fullest ability.

Article I. Membership
Section 1. Classes of Membership
. The General Studies Student Council (GSSC) shall be divided into two classes of membership:
A. Officers
a. Those members who are defined by the General Studies Student Council Constitution and Article II Officers, of these by-laws.
B. Associates
a. Those members who are liaisons, delegates, or sit on a committee without holding an office.
C. An Officer may fulfill the role of an Associate, but no Officer may hold two offices.
Section 2. Qualifications for Membership.
The General Studies Student Council (GSSC) shall have the following qualifications for membership:
A. Officers
a. In order to be eligible for membership as an Officer of the GSSC, a student must be qualified as described in the General Studies Student Council Constitution.
B. Associates
a. In order to be eligible for membership as an Associate of the GSSC, a student must be enrolled at Columbia University in the School of General Studies and be in good standing with the Dean of Students office (DOS).
Section 3. Methods for Becoming a Member. The General Studies Student Council (GSSC) shall have the methods for becoming a member:
A. Officers
a. In order to become an Officer of the GSSC, a student must satisfactorily complete the methods as described in Article III Elections or Article IV Appointments of these by-laws.
B. Associates
a. In order to become an Associate of the GSSC, a student must be appointed by an Executive Officer as described in Article IV Appointments of these by-laws.
Section 4. Duties, Rights and Obligations of Members.
The duties of each Officer shall be as described in the General Studies Student Council Constitution and Article II Officers of these by-laws. Additional duties may be assigned by the Executive Board, as needed for each Officer to
best serve the GS Student Body and the General Studies Student Council Constitution. Each Officer shall have the right to vote and speak during regular Council Meetings. Each officer shall be obligated to attend all meetings as described in Article VIII Meetings of these by-laws. Each Associate shall have their obligations and duties assigned by the relevant Executive Officer.

Article II. Officers
Section 1. Executive Officers.
Officers of the GSSC who are members of the Executive Board shall be known as Executive Officers. Their titles and duties shall be as described in the General Studies Student Council Constitution and as follows:
A. Student Body President, shall
a. Bear primary responsibility for the execution of all GSSC directives.
b. Keep the Executive Board apprised of all current business via weekly Executive Board meetings and other modes of communication.
c. Keep the GS student body updated on all relevant issues through email communication at least once per month.
d. Meet with an advisor from the Dean Of Students office at least once per month to provide updates on the GSSC.
e. Actively engage with the Policy Committee on initiatives.
f. Attend other GSSC committee meetings as needed.
g. Facilitate the appointment processes.
B. Vice President of Policy, shall
a. Assist the Student Body President in the fulfillment of his or her duties.
b. Assume the role of Student Body President in the event of the resignation, impeachment, or ineligibility of the President.
c. Shall have explicit knowledge of parliamentary procedure.
d. Uphold non-budgetary inter-group relations with administrators and the executive boards of other councils and governing boards.
e. Identify goals and initiatives to deliver progress in the areas of academic services, student services, financial aid, housing and any other relevant areas.
f. Develop and expand the Policy Committee to include delegates and liaisons as needed to achieve progress and encourage student involvement.
C. Vice President of Finance, shall
a. Assist the Student Body President in the fulfillment of his or her duties.
b. Implement timely, fair procedures for the funding of the GSSC.
c. Uphold budgetary inter-group relations with administrators and the executive boards of other councils and governing boards.
d. Advise the GSSC regarding the Student Activities Fee.
e. Serve on the Activities Board at Columbia, keeping the GSSC abreast of relevant issues on the governing board.
f. Identify goals and initiatives to deliver progress in the areas of budgeting, funding, financial procedures, allocations, financial reporting, and any other relevant areas.
g. Develop and expand the Finance Committee to include delegates and liaisons as needed to achieve progress and encourage student involvement.
D. Vice President of Communications, shall
a. Assist the Student Body President in the fulfillment of his or her duties.
b. Uphold non-budgetary inter-group relations with administrators and the executive boards of other councils and governing boards.

c. Facilitate communication between the General Studies student body, members of the GSSC and the General Studies administration.
d. Oversee and facilitate the documentation of all GSSC activities, including but not limited to, taking minutes at weekly meetings and collecting reports from all GSSC Officers and Committee Chairpersons.
e. Identify goals and initiatives to deliver progress in the areas of communications, transparency, integrity, informational resources, issemination of information, and any other relevant areas.
f. Facilitate the coverage of GSSC activities by campus publications.
g. Develop and expand the Communications Committee to include delegates and liaisons as needed to achieve progress and encourage student involvement.
E. Vice President of Student Events, shall
a. Assist the Student Body President in the fulfillment of his or her duties.
b. Uphold non-budgetary inter-group relations with administrators and the executive boards of other councils and governing boards.
c. Identify goals and initiatives to deliver progress in social, academic, pre-professional, and philanthropic events, as well as, any other relevant areas.
d. Develop and expand the Student Events Committee to include delegates and liaisons as needed to achieve progress and encourage student involvement.
Section 2. Officers.
Officers of the GSSC who are not members of the Executive Board shall be known as Officers. Their titles and duties shall be as described in the General Studies Student Council Constitution and as follows:
A. Chief Policy Representative, shall
a. Sit on the Policy Committee
b. Be the Vice Chair of the Policy Committee
c. Assist the Vice President of Policy in the fulfillment of his or her duties.
d. Seek out, identify, and create policy initiatives.
e. Fulfill all special assignments as delegated by the Vice President of Policy
B. Chief Finance Representative, shall
a. Sit on the Finance Committee
b. Be the Vice Chair of the Finance Committee
c. Assist the Vice President of Finance in the fulfillment of his or her duties.
d. Seek out, identify, and, create financial initiatives.
e. Fulfill all special assignments as delegated by the Vice President of Finance
C. Chief Communications Representative, shall
a. Sit on the Communications Committee
b. Be the Vice Chair of the Communications Committee
c. Assist the Vice President of Communications in the fulfillment of his or her duties.
d. Seek out, identify, and, create communications initiatives.
e. Fulfill all special assignments as delegated by the Vice President of Communications
D. Chief Student Events Representative, shall
a. Sit on the Student Events Committee

b. Be the Vice Chair of the Student Events Committee
c. Assist the Vice President of Student Events in the fulfillment of his or her duties.
d. Seek out, identify, and, create events initiatives.
e. Fulfill all special assignments as delegated by the Vice President of Student Events.
E. Academic Affairs Representative, shall
a. Sit on the Policy Committee.
b. Ensure that information concerning academic issues shall be made available to the GS student body.
c. Provide opportunities for interaction between students and faculty in various major departments as needed.
d. Maintain a relationship with an advisor for academic affairs from the Dean Of Students office.
e. Uphold relations with other Academic Affairs representatives from other councils.
f. Organize the GSSC Excellence in Teaching Awards and nomination and selection process
g. Fulfill all special assignments as delegated by the Vice President of Policy
F. Student Services Representative, shall
a. Sit on the Policy Committee.
b. Ensure that information concerning student services shall be made available to the GS student body.
c. Maintain a relationship with advisors from the Dean Of Students office, and Student & Administrative Services at Columbia University.
d. Monitor the quality of student service and address concerns which may involve but are not limited to the Office of the Registrar, Student Financial Services, Academic Information Systems, University Housing, Athletic Facilities, Dining Services and Health Services.
e. Uphold relations with other Student Service representatives from other councils.
f. Fulfill all special assignments as delegated by the Vice President of Policy
G. University Senator, shall
a. Maintain a relationship with the Dean of The School of General Studies, the Dean of Enrollment Management, the Director of Educational Financing, and the Dean of Students as well as his or her entire office.
H. Comptroller, shall
a. Sit on the Finance Committee
b. Assist the Vice President of Finance in the fulfillment of his or her duties.
c. Attend the weekly Student Events Committee meeting in order to keep track of necessary vendors and payments in support of GSSC events.
d. Shall obtain an outline of planned student activities from the Student Events Committee for budgeting purposes by the 3rd week of the semester.
e. Keep a general ledger of each class council’s expenditures
f. Ensure Student Events Committee members are aware of the B-form/application process and assist in the processing of B-forms and invoices & W-9 vendor set-up process.
g. Advise student organizations about GSSC financial procedures and allocations.
h. Fulfill all special assignments as delegated by the Vice President of Finance

I. Social Chair, shall
a. Sit on the Student Events Committee.
b. Assist the Vice President of Student Events in the fulfillment of his or her duties.
c. Organize the annual spring GSSC Gala.
d. Organize the annual fall GSSC Orientation Event.
e. Offer assistance to other GSSC members in planning events.
f. Fulfill all special assignments as delegated by the Vice President of Student Events
J. Alumni Affairs Representative, shall
a. Sit on the Student Events Committee.
b. Assist the Vice President of Student Events in the fulfillment of his or her duties.
c. Provide opportunities for interaction between students and alumni.
d. Monitor the quality of alumni programming at the university and address concerns which may be raised.
e. Maintain a relationship with the Office of Alumni and Development, and the Associate Director for Alumni Relations at GS.
f. Fulfill all special assignments as delegated by the Vice President of Student Events
K. International Students Representative, shall
a. Sit on the Student Events Committee.
b. Assist the Vice President of Student Events in the fulfillment of his or her duties.
c. Provide opportunities for interaction between international students and non-international students
d. Monitor the quality of international student’s life at the university and address concerns, which may be raised.
e. Fulfill all special assignments as delegated by the Vice President of Student Events.
L. Jewish Theological Seminary Students Representative, shall
a. Sit on the Student Events Committee.
b. Assist the Vice President of Student Events in the fulfillment of his or her duties.
c. Provide opportunities for interaction between JTS students and non-JTS students
d. Monitor the quality of JTS students’ life at the university and address concerns which may be raised.
e. Fulfill all special assignments as delegated by the Vice President of Student Events.
M. Working Students Representative, shall
a. Sit on the Student Events Committee.
b. Assist the Vice President of Student Events in the fulfillment of his or her duties.
c. Provide opportunities for interaction between working students and non-working students.
d. Monitor the quality of working students’ lives at the university and address concerns which may be raised.
e. Fulfill all special assignments as delegated by the Vice President of Student Events

N. Veteran Students Representative, shall

a. Sit on the Student Events Committee.
b. Assist the Vice President of Student Events in the fulfillment of his or her duties.
c. Provide opportunities for interaction between veteran students and non-veteran students
d. Monitor the quality of veterans’ services at the university and address concerns which may be raised.
e. Maintain a relationship with all veterans affairs officials at Columbia University
f. Fulfill all special assignments as delegated by the Vice President of Student Events
O. Community Services Representative, shall
a. Sit on the Student Events Committee.
b. Assist the Vice President of Student Events in the fulfillment of his or her duties.
c. Provide philanthropic opportunities for the GS student body.
d. Maintain a relationship with the Community Impact program at Columbia University.
e. Have explicit knowledge of Community Impact in order to better inform the GSSC Student Events Committee.
f. Seek out, identify, and, create community service initiatives for the GS student body.
g. Work with other GSSC committees as needed.
h. Fulfill all special assignments as delegated by the Vice President of Student Events.
P. Four Council Coordinator, shall
a. Sit on the Student Events Committee, and report to VP of Student Events.
b. Create and maintain strong relationships with the three other undergraduate councils and other Columbia student groups (including ESC, Barnard, SGB, and ABC)
c. As directed by the Executive Board, attend or ensure the presence of a liaison at meetings of the undergraduate councils and other students groups.
d. Update the Executive Board and the Council on pertinent events, policies, and activities of other councils and groups as necessary.
e. Coordinate all 4 Council Events by working with the Social Chair and the GSSC Student Events Committee.
Q. Senior Class President, shall
a. Sit on the Student Events Committee.
b. Plan Senior Class events, including but not limited too, the Senior Cruise, Senior Fund, and Senior Week.
c. Fulfill all special assignments as delegated by the Vice President of Student Events
R. Senior Class Vice President, shall
a. Sit on the Student Events Committee.
b. Be the Vice Chair of the Senior Class Committee, when needed.
c. Assist the Senior Class President of in the fulfillment of his or her duties.
d. Assume the role of Senior Class President in the event of the resignation, impeachment, or ineligibility of the President.
e. Fulfill all special assignments as delegated by the Senior Class President and the Vice President of Student Events.

S. First Year Class President, shall
a. Sit on the Student Events Committee.
b. Provide opportunities for First Year GS students to come together for class- specific social and educational purposes.
c. Uphold relations with the First Year Class Presidents from other councils.
d. Collaborate with the DOS Office to plan and execute First Year Class activities.
e. Fulfill all special assignments as delegated by the Vice President of Student Events
T. First Year Class Vice President, shall
a. Sit on the Student Events Committee.
b. Assist the First Year Class President in the fulfillment of his or her duties.
c. Assume the First Year Class President’s responsibilities in her or his absence.
d. Assume the role of First Year Class President in the event of the resignation,impeachment, or ineligibility of the President.
e. Fulfill all special assignments as delegated by the First Year Class President and the Vice President of Student Events.
Article III. Elections.
Section 1. Elections.
The GSSC Annual Elections shall be as described in the General Studies Student Council Constitution and as follows:
A. Timeline
a. GSSC elections shall be held annually before the last day of classes in the spring semester.
b. The date will be set by the Election Commission, making every effort to align the date with the other Columbia undergraduate councils.
c. The selected date must be announced at least five weeks prior to elections.
B. Eligible Positions
a. The following position will be eligible for new representation at each year at the time of annual elections.
1. Student Body President
2. Vice President of Policy
3. Vice President of Finance
4. Vice President of Student Events
5. Vice President of Communications
6. International Students Representative
7. JTS Students Representative
8. Working Students Representative
9. Veteran Students Representative
10. Senior Class President
11. Senior Class Vice President
b. The University Senator will be elected according to GSSC constitutional guidelines on Terms of Service (Article III, 2).

c. The following positions are also eligible for new representation each year. These positions will be determined by instant run-off as a result of the outcome of their respective Vice Presidents’ elections.
1. Chief Policy Representative
2. Chief Finance Representative
3. Chief Student Events Representative
4. Chief Communications Representative
Section 2. Election Commission
A. Formation
a. The Executive Board of the GSSC shall nominate a commissioner and two other members to an Election Commission, hereafter referred to as the E.C., at least four weeks prior to the election. The E.C. shall also be comprised of two non-voting Student Life Officers from the DOS Office. In subsequent years, the E.C. should be increased to five members.
b. Any current GS students who do not serve on GSSC and do not intend to run in the upcoming election may be nominated to the E.C.
c. Additionally, one member of the GSSC Policy Committee will serve the E.C. in an advisory, non-voting role for any questions pertaining to the procedures or legitimacy of all elections-related activity.
d. Notice of E.C. positions must be widely advertised to the student body at least two weeks prior to E.C. appointments, with the Policy Committee’s email (gsscpolicy) made available for students to express interest.
B. The E.C. shall:
a. Ensure a fair and constitutional election process.
b. Serve one year terms commencing immediately upon selection by GSSC after Spring elections. There is no term limit for E.C. members as long as they maintain eligibility as enrolled GS students who do not hold a GSSC office. If a
member of the E.C. resigns during his or her term, he or she is still ineligible to run in the Spring GSSC elections or apply to fill a GSSC vacancy that year.
c. Meet at least once a week for four weeks prior to the election.
d. Create and distribute an Election Packet to interested members of the student body at least two weeks prior to the election which includes:
1. a list of relevant election dates
2. a copy of these Election By-Laws
3. relevant forms, including Intent to Run, Endorsement, and Rule Violation Forms
e. Specify office hours during which they will view campaign materials.
f. Rule on submitted Rule Violation Forms.
g. Compile a voter guide to be distributed to the student body electronically one week prior to Election Day.
h. Establish a timetable of deadlines for candidacy declaration and campaign materials and start and finish times for campaigning.
i. Use only official Columbia e-mail accounts for elections-related communication.
j. Administer in-person voting on Election Day in Lewisohn Hall.

k. Uphold the GSSC Constitution and By-Laws. Violation by a member of the E.C. will lead to this member’s expulsion from the E.C., following a majority vote by the GSSC.
C. The E.C. Commissioner will serve as the head of the E.C., and will be the primary liaison for communicating with the GSSC and DOS Office. The Chair will be responsible for arranging all E.C. meetings and ensuring that the elections are well-publicized and run according to schedule. The Chair will also be responsible for ensuring that all commission members remain impartial throughout the elections process. All internal E.C. decisions will be mediated by the Chair.
D. Decisions made with at least 2/3 majority by the E.C. are final.
Section 3. Candidate Eligibility
A. Any GS student who meets the criteria outlined in Article III, Section 1 of the Constitution may run for a GSSC office.
B. Students wishing to run for a position must submit an Intent to Run Form by the deadline set by the E.C.
C. In the event that no student applies for a given position, the deadline may be extended for that position only.
D. Any student who wishes to run for the office of Senior Class President or Senior Class Vice President must be of senior standing, as defined by the DOS Office, for the entirety of the upcoming academic year.
E. No student shall run for more than one office.
F. The office of Student Body President must have more than one candidate. Candidates for this office must have spent one academic year in GS with a minimum of 12 credits completed over two consecutive semesters. In the absence of a second challenger, the E.C. will defer the race for Student Body President to a Special Election (see Section 7). Relevant campaigning and other deadlines will be accordingly readjusted to suit the new election date.
G. All candidates must agree to attend the GSSC retreat at the beginning of the academic year for which s/he is running.
Section 4. Campaigning
A. All campaign activities are subject to official university regulations. If the E.C. determines that a university regulation has been violated, it shall have the right to remove involved candidates from the election.
B. Inappropriate or defaming language and images are prohibited in all campaign materials, subject to the discretion of the E.C. If a candidate has any question regarding the appropriateness of any campaign materials, he/she is responsible for checking with the E.C.
C. Candidates are responsible for the campaign-related actions of those whom they encourage, request, or solicit to be a part of their campaign. Furthermore, candidates are responsible for notifying such persons of the E.C. guidelines and Election by-laws.
D. Candidates are responsible for checking with the E.C. when considering campaign activities not described in these regulations.
E. Campaign Materials
a. Candidates may spend up to $100 on campaign related promotional materials.

b. Within 24 hours of purchasing campaign materials, candidates must present the E.C. with receipts of purchase. The E.C. will count and copy all receipts, and will be responsible for notifying candidates when their $100 maximum is reached.
c. Candidates may use an unlimited number of flyers, provided the cost of those flyers does not exceed their budget.
d. Campaign materials may not be procured through donations, sponsorships, employer resources, or any other means not described in these by-laws. If a candidate has any question regarding the legitimacy of any campaign materials, he/she is responsible for checking with the E.C.
e. The E.C. will make every effort to ensure fairness in campaigning means across candidates.
F. Endorsements
a. To obtain an official endorsement, a candidate or party and the endorsing organization must comply with the following regulations:
1. The party or candidate must obtain a Candidate Endorsement Form from the EC.
2. The party or candidate must present their platform at a full meeting of the student organization’s executive board.
3. The endorsing organization must be provided with a copy of the rules regarding endorsements (Section 4F).
4. If the candidate seeking endorsement is a member of the student group’s executive board, then he/she must abstain from the vote.
5. The Candidate Endorsement Form must be completed and signed by the candidate seeking endorsement and the president of the endorsing organization.
6. If the candidate seeking endorsement is the president of the student group, then the next highest-ranking officer must preside over the vote and sign the Candidate Endorsement Form.
b. Candidates must submit completed Campaign Endorsement forms to the E.C. Candidates may not publicize an endorsement until the form has been submitted and approved.
c. Endorsing organizations may not provide financial or material support to candidates. Their members may campaign on behalf of candidates, but must comply with all elections rules. Candidates may not campaign on event flyers of their endorsing organizations.
d. Candidates may not be endorsed by the GSSC, CCSC, ESC, Barnard SGA, ListCollege Student Council, Activities Board at Columbia, Student Governing Board, Community Impact, Club Sports Governing Board, or the Inter-Greek Council.
e. Candidates may not be endorsed by administrators, faculty, GSSC, or E.C. members.
G. Parties
a. Candidates for the office of Class President and Class Vice President for the same class may run together as a party. They must identify themselves as a party on their Intent to Run form.

Section 5. Voting
A. Ballots
a. Ballots shall be prepared by the DOS Office and must be approved by the E.C. two days prior to the start of the election.
b. Candidate names shall be grouped according to the position for which they are running and listed alphabetically.
B. Advertising
a. It is imperative that the entire student body be made aware of the elections so that every eligible student has the opportunity to become a candidate, and so that every student feels invested in the outcome of the election.
b. The EC and GSSC, with support from the DOS Office, should advertise the elections through a variety of means, including: flyers, e-mails, and the GSSC website.
c. Within one week of the election, the GSSC Communications Committee will produce and distribute 250 non-candidate-specific flyers providing students with election date, contact information for the E.C., and voting website link.
d. Within one week of the election, all official GS electronic communication, notably the Owl, shall prominently feature information about the elections, including links to the candidate statements, the Election Day voting link, and contact information for the E.C.
C. Voting
a. Internet Voting
1. The ballot will be held on a secure server on the University Network.
2. Voting will open at 10:00 am on the day of the election and end promptly
48 hours after the elections are opened.
3. Proper precautions will be taken with CUIT and/or other appropriate bodies in order to ensure a fair election.
4. Any evidence of a security breach or other violation affecting the vote will result in a re-vote.
b. In-person Voting
1. Voting will take place electronically on both days of the election in the GS Lounge in Lewisohn Hall from 10:00 am to 4:00 pm.
2. Voting stations must be staffed by at least two people at all times. Only non-candidate GSSC members, EC members and DOS office staff are permitted to supervise voting.
3. Voting stations must be set up for secret voting. Online voting stations should include partitions.
4. Rule Violation Forms shall be made available at the voting site.
D. Tally of Votes
a. Votes are tallied by the DOS Office and confirmed by the E.C.
b. A simple plurality of votes will determine the victor in each office.
c. Once elections close, candidates have 24 hours to issue any remaining election complaints to the E.C. and any ballot complaints to the Student Life Officers of the DOS Office.
d. If the E.C. or Student Life Office receives any complaints within this 24-hour
period, all results will be withheld until the dispute is resolved. Otherwise, the E.C. shall release unofficial election results to the candidates once the 24-hour complaint period has elapsed.
e. Candidates may not disclose election results in any way whatsoever until official results have been disclosed. Infractions of this rule will be addressed by the DOS Office.
f. A candidate may request a re-count if the numerical difference between the candidate’s total and the named winner’s total is less than 10% of all votes cast in that race. Such requests must be submitted to the E.C. within 24 hours of the announcement of the results. The re-count will be undertaken by the DOS in consultation with CUIT.
g. When releasing the results to the candidates and to the school, the E.C. shall include the percentage of votes received by each candidate.
h. The E.C. shall release all results to the student body within 2 hours after the announcement to the candidates.
Section 6. Elections By-Law Violations
a. Allegations of rule violations by any candidate must be submitted in writing using a Rule Violation Form to the E.C.
b. The E.C., upon receiving the allegation, shall immediately give a copy of this statement to the accused candidate, who may submit a rebuttal to the E.C. within 24 hours.
c. The E.C. shall reach a decision within two days of receiving the rebuttal, or if no rebuttal is received, within 48 hours of receiving the Violation Form.
d. Allegations of rule violations by any member of the E.C. must be submitted in writing using a Rule Violation Form to the GSSC Vice President of Policy.
e. The Vice President of Policy, upon receiving the allegation, shall immediately give a copy of this statement to all members of the GSSC and to the accused E.C. member, who may submit a rebuttal to the GSSC within 24 hours.
f. After the 24-hour period has elapsed, the GSSC will vote by e-mail, requiring a 2/3-majority vote for expulsion.
B. Penalties
a. Candidates may not misrepresent themselves or other candidates with fraudulent information in any campaign activities, and may not remove or deface other candidates’ campaign materials. Violations of this nature will be subject the candidate to suspension or termination of all campaigning privileges, subject to the discretion of the E.C.
b. Paid advertising of any kind of prohibited. Violations of this nature will terminate the candidate’s electronic media campaigning privileges, and/or strip the candidate of endorsement privileges in their campaign, subject to the discretion of the E.C.
c. No candidate may contact an individual based on information obtained from a petition, sign-in sheet, club list, listserv and/or any list compiled by the GSSC. Violations of this nature will subject the candidate to suspension or termination of campaigning privileges, subject to the discretion of the E.C.
d. On the day of the election, campaigning may not take place within the GS Lounge. If a member is found campaigning in the GS Lounge on Election Day,

in-person voting will be suspended until the campaigning ceases and all campaign materials are removed from the GS Lounge.
e. Candidates may not offer food and/or alcohol in an effort to garner votes. Violations of this nature will subject the candidate to suspension or termination of all campaign privileges, and/or strip the candidate of endorsement privileges in their campaign, subject to the discretion of the E.C.
f. Candidates may not begin their campaign until their Intent to Run Form has been accepted by the E.C. If a candidate campaigns before this happens, he/she will be docked campaigning privileges for the same number of days that he/she campaigned early.
g. Candidates may not violate University policies in their campaign efforts. Violations of this nature will disqualify the candidate from elections and further action may be taken by University Administration.
h. Candidates who do not adhere to the penalties imposed upon them by the E.C. will automatically be disqualified from elections.
Section 7. Special Elections
A. In the event of an uncontested race for Student Body President, a special election will be held for this position two weeks following the receipt of the challenging candidate’s Intent to Run Form by the E.C.
B. Intent to Run Forms will continue to be accepted until two weeks before the last day of classes. After this time, the special election must take place during the fall semester.
C. In the event of a vacancy in the Senator office, candidates will be recruited a special election will be conducted pursuant to the Senate elections guidelines.
Article IV. Appointments
Section 1. Purpose.
A formal process to conduct appointments to the GSSC, in order to fill vacant positions as needed. These appointments shall take place during one of the following conditions:
A. Spring Appointments
B. Fall Appointments
C. Supplemental Appointments
D. Committee Appointments
Section 2. Spring Appointments
. Following the GSSC Annual Elections, the GSSC shall conduct appointments for the following academic year.
A. Purpose:
a. To secure highly qualified student leaders for the GSSC in order to best serve the GS Student Body and the General Studies Student Council Constitution.

B. Administrant:
a. The newly elected Executive Board, herein known as the Executive Board Elect (EBE), shall administer the Spring Appointments.
C. Definitions:
a. Special Appointments
i. All positions which are eligible for GSSC Annual Elections and which remain vacant following those elections, shall be considered Special Appointments and shall take precedence over the General Appointments.
b. General Appointments
i. All positoins, which are designated as non-elected voting positions, shall
be considered General Appointments.
ii. The following General Appointments shall be made in the spring:
1. Chief Policy Representative
2. Chief Communications Representative
3. Chief Finance Representative
4. Chief Student Events Representative
5. Alumni Affairs Representative
6. Four Council Representative
7. Social Chair
D. Timeline and Location:
a. Spring Appointments shall be conducted during the spring semester, after the GSSC Annual Elections and before commencement.
b. Spring Appointments shall be conducted in a location at Columbia University, at the discretion of the EBE.
c. Positions available for Spring General Appointments shall be announced to the GS student body no later than the first announcement of candidates in the GSSC annual election.
d. Positions available for Spring Special Appointments shall be announced to the GS student body no later than the release of the official and final election results of the GSSC Annual Elections.
e. Applications will be collected electronically, by the current Vice President of Communications and delivered to the EBE, via the newly elected Student Body President.
i. The Vice President of Communications shall verify that each application has been properly received with a prompt confirmation receipt.
f. The application deadline for all Spring Appointments will be one week after the official and final election results of the GSSC annual election have been released.
i. The applications shall be delivered no later than 24 hours following the deadline.
g. Upon conclusion of the Spring Appointments, the Vice President of Communications shall notify the GS Student Body of the results.
i. The notification shall take place immediately following the approval of the
final applicant.
ii. These results shall be a matter of public record.
E. Procedure:
a. Special Appointments

i. Special Appointments take precedence over General Appointments.
ii. These positions shall be filled in order of succession, as defined by the General Studies Student Council Constitution and Article VII. Successions of these by-laws, then followed by the Senior Class President and Senior Class Vice President.
iii. If any of the EBE positions are vacant, the current officer shall participate as a substitute officer in the appointment process for that office.
1. If the current officer of that position seeks the nomination for that position, the appointment process will proceed without that substitute officer.
2. If the current officer of that position holds another office on the EBE, the appointment process will proceed without that substitute officer.
iv. An officer of the EBE may apply for a Special Appointment to a different vacant position on the EBE.
1. If an officer of the EBE is approved for a vacant office, that officer’s original position will be vacant until filled by a Fall Special Appointment.
2. An officer of the EBE who is an applicant for a vacant positionshall not have a vote in his or her own approval.

a. No substitute shall be used to fill in for this officer’s original position during the approval process for his new position.
v. For each position, the EBE, with any required substitute officer, shall review and interview all applicants, then nominate one applicant for an approval vote.
1. Each of the individual officers on the EBE, any required Substitute Officer, the University Senator Elect, the Senior Class President Elect, and the Senior Class Vice President Elect shall vote for or against the applicant.
2. There shall be no abstentions in this vote.
vi. A majority of the votes are required for approval.
1. In the event this vote does pass, the applicant immediately becomes part of the EBE and relieves his Substitute.
2. In the event this vote fails to pass, the EBE, with any required Substitute, shall nominate another candidate.
vii. This cycle of proposals shall continue until a candidate has been selected or there are no remaining candidates.
viii. If no candidate is approved, the office shall remain vacant until the Fall Appointments.
b. General Appointments
i. General Appointments shall follow the completion of Special Appointments.
ii. For each position, the EBE shall review and interview all applicants, then nominate one applicant for an approval vote.

1. All the individual officers of the EBE, the University Senator Elect, the Senior Class President Elect, and the Senior Class Vice President Elect shall each vote for or against the applicant.
2. There shall be no abstentions in this vote.
iii. A majority of the votes are required for approval.
1. In the event this vote does pass, the applicant shall take his or her office following commencement.
2. In the event this vote fails to pass, the EBE shall nominate another candidate.
iv. This cycle of proposals shall continue until a candidate has been selected or there are no remaining candidates.
v. If no candidate is approved, the office shall remain vacant until the Fall Appointments.
Section 3. Fall Appointments
. During fall semester, the GSSC shall conduct appointments for the academic year.
A. Purpose:
a. To secure highly qualified student leaders for the GSSC in order to best serve the GS Student Body and the General Studies Student Council Constitution.
B. Administrant:
a. The Executive Board (E-Board) of the GSSC.
C. Definitions:
a. Special Appointments
i. All positions which are eligible for the GSSC Annual Elections and which remain vacant following those elections and the Spring Appointments, shall be considered Special Appointments and shall take precedence over the General Appointments.
b. General Appointments
i. All positions, which are designated as non-elected voting positions, shall
be considered General Appointments.
ii. The following General Appointments shall be made in the fall:
1. Academic Affairs Representative
2. Student Affairs Representative
3. Comptroller
4. International Students Representative
5. Jewish Theological Seminary Students Representative
6. Working Students Representative
7. Veteran Students Representative
8. Community Services Representative
9. First Year Class President
10. First Year Class Vice President
iii. Any remaining vacant non-elected, voting positions from the Spring Appointments shall also be made in the fall.
D. Timeline and Location:

a. Fall Appointments shall be conducted during the fall semester, within two weeks of the first day of class.
b. Fall Appointments shall be conducted in a location at Columbia University, at the discretion of the E-Board.
c. Positions available for all Fall Appointments shall be announced to the GS Student Body no later than 11:59pm on the first day of classes.
d. Applications will be collected electronically, by the Vice President of Communications and delivered to E-Board.
e. The application deadline for all Fall Appointments will be two weeks after the first day of class.
i. The applications shall be delivered no later than 24 hours following the deadline.
E. Procedure:
a. Special Appointments
i. Special Appointments take precedence over General Appointments.
ii. These positions shall be filled in order of succession, as defined by the General Studies Student Council Constitution and Article IV. Successions of these by-laws, followed by the Senior Class President and Senior Class Vice President.
iii. For each position, the E-Board, shall review and interview all applicants, then recommend one applicant for an approval vote.
1. The General Body of the GSSC shall vote for or against the applicant.
2. There shall be no abstentions in this vote.
iv. A majority of the votes are required for approval.
1. In the event this vote does pass, the applicant immediately becomes part of the GSSC.
2. In the event this vote fails to pass, the E-Board, shall recommend another candidate.
v. This cycle of proposals shall continue until a candidate has been selected or there are no remaining candidates.
vi. If no candidate is approved, the office shall remain vacant until a Supplemental Appointment.
b. General Appointments
i. General Appointments shall follow the completion of Special Appointments.
ii. For each position, the E-Board shall review and interview all applicants, then recommend one applicant for an approval vote.
1. The General Body of the GSSC shall vote for or against the applicant.
2. There shall be no abstentions in this vote.
iii. A majority of the votes are required for approval.
1. In the event this vote does pass, the applicant shall take his or her office following the Fall Appointments process.
2. In the event this vote fails to pass, the E-Board shall recommend another candidate.

iv. This cycle of proposals shall continue until a candidate has been selected or there are no remaining candidates.
v. If no candidate is approved, the office shall remain vacant until a Supplemental Appointment.
Section 4. Supplemental Appointments
. Throughout the academic year, the GSSC shall hold supplemental appointments to fill any voting positions, which become vacant following the spring and fall appointment conditions.
A. Purpose:
a. To secure highly qualified student leaders for the GSSC in order to best serve the GS Student Body and the General Studies Student Council Constitution.
B. Administrant:
a. The Executive Board (E-Board) of the GSSC.
C. Definitions:
a. Supplemental Appointments
i. In the event that an office of the GSSC remains vacant following the Spring and Fall Appointment processes, or becomes vacant at any time during the academic year, that position shall be filled through a Supplemental Appointment.
ii. Supplemental Appointments may not be used in lieu of Spring and Fall Appointments; doing so is in violation of the General Studies Student Council Constitution, Article III, Section 3 Code of Conduct.
D. Timeline and Location:
a. Supplemental Appointments shall be conducted during the fall and spring semester, no sooner than two weeks after the first day of class and no later than two weeks before the last day of classes.
b. Supplemental Appointments shall be conducted in a location at Columbia University, at the discretion of the E-Board.
c. Positions available for all Supplementary Appointments shall be announced to the GS Student Body weekly.
d. Applications will be collected electronically, by the Vice President of Communications and delivered to E-Board.
e. Applications for each position shall have a deadline set by the E-Board.
E. Procedure:
a. The Vice President of Communications shall disseminate information to the GSSC and GS Student Body regarding all open offices of the GSSC after the Spring and Fall Appointments on a weekly basis.
b. The Vice President of Communications shall develop a system for receiving all applications for those offices.
c. All applications shall be delivered to the E-Board within 48 hours of their acceptance.
d. Additionally, any Officer of the GSSC may recommend to the E-board any willing applicant for nomination.
i. Any recommendations from Officers of the GSSC must be submitted to the E-Board before the application deadline.

ii. An Officer of the GSSC may also present to the E-Board himself or herself for consideration for a nomination.
1. If an Officer of the GSSC is approved for a vacant office, that Officer’s original position will be vacant until filled by a Supplemental Appointment.
2. An Officer of the GSSC who is an applicant for a vacant position shall not have a vote in his or her own approval.
e. For each position, the E-Board shall review and interview all applicants, then recommend one applicant for an approval vote.
i. The General Body of the GSSC shall vote for or against the applicant.
ii. There shall be no abstentions in this vote.
f. A majority of the votes are required for approval.
i. In the event this vote does pass, the applicant shall take his or her office at the opening of the following General Body Meeting.
ii. In the event this vote fails to pass, the E-Board shall recommend another candidate.
g. This cycle of proposals shall continue until a candidate has been selected or there are no remaining candidates.
h. If no candidate is approved, the office shall remain vacant until another Supplemental Appointment occurs.
i. The frequency of Supplemental Appointments is at the discretion of the E-Board.
Section 5. Committee Appointments
. Throughout the academic year, the GSSC shall hold
committee appointments to fill any Associate position that is needed by the council.
A. Purpose:
a. To secure highly qualified students for the Committees of the GSSC, in order to best serve the GS Student Body and the General Studies Student Council
Constitution.
B. Administrant:
a. The Executive Board (E-Board) of the GSSC.
C. Definitions
a. Committee Appointments
i. All positions on the Committees of the GSSC which are non-voting and non-elected shall be shall be considered for Committee Appointments.
ii. These positions shall be composed of Associates of the GSSC, as described in Article I. Membership of these by-laws.
D. Timeline and Location:
a. Committee Appointments shall be conducted as needed throughout the academic year.
b. Committee Appointments shall be conducted in a location at Columbia University, at the discretion of the E-Board.
c. Positions available for all Committee Appointments shall be announced to the GS Student Body as needed.
d. Applications will be collected by the relevant Executive Officer.

e. Application deadlines shall be at the discretion of the relevant Executive Officer.
E. Procedure:
a. Committee Appointments shall be made at the discretion of the relevant
Executive Officer.
b. The E-Board shall be notified of all Committee Appointments.
Section 6. Exclusions
. The following circumstances shall be conduced as stated:
A. Resignations and Ineligibilities of the EBE
a. If a member of the EBE, other than the Student Body President, is found to be ineligible or resigns after the announcement of the Spring Special Appointments, that position shall be filled during the Fall Appointments or Supplemental Appointments as needed.
B. Student Body President
a. The Student Body President may not, under any circumstances, be appointed.
b. If the Student Body President position becomes vacant, the rules for succession outlined in Article VII Successions of these by-laws shall be adhered to.
c. If there is no elected officer of the GSSC available to succeed to the office of Student Body President, a Special Election shall take place as codified in Article
VII Successions, Section 6C and Article III Elections of these by-laws.
C. University Senator
a. The University Senator may not, under any circumstances, be appointed.
b. If the University Senator position becomes vacant, a Special Election will be held in order to fill that position as codified in Article III Elections of these by-laws.
D. Committee On Instruction Delegate
a. The Committee On Instruction Liaison must be confirmed by the Dean of the School of General Studies.
i. The Student Body President shall make nominations to the Dean of the School of General Studies for the COI Delegate.
E. Four Council Liaisons
a. The Columbia College, Columbia Engineering, Barnard College, and List College liaisons shall be appointed by the Student Body President
Article V. Resignations
Section 1. Purpose.
A formal process for Officers of the GSSC to relinquish their office and title, prior to the end of their term of office.
Section 2. Administrant.
The Executive Board (E-Board) of the GSSC shall administer all resignations.
Section 3. Definitions.
A. Relinquish

a. In order to relinquish an office, the resignation must be a voluntary request to leave and give up all claims to membership in the GSSC.
Section 4. Timeline and Location.
Resignations may occur at any time and from any location.
Section 5. Procedure.
An Officer of the GSSC shall utilize the following procedure to relinquish an office:
A. The officer must submit a written Letter of Intent to Resign to the Student Body President,
a. Within 48 hours of receiving the Letter of Intent to Resign, the Student Body President will present this letter to the other members of the E-Board, the Chief Policy Representative, and an advisor from the Dean Of Students office.
b. The Letter of Intent will contain:
i. Name and Office of the officer to resign.
ii. Time the resignation shall take effect.
iii. A clause specifying that the resignation is voluntary.
iv. An explanation for the necessity of the resignation.
c. The E-Board, in consultation with the Chief Policy Representative, shall review the Letter of Intent.
i. They shall choose to accept or refuse the resignation.
B. If the resignation is accepted, the officer requesting to resign shall be notified of the decision within 24 hours by the Student Body President.
a. The resignation shall take place in accordance with the requested timeframe.
C. If the resignation is refused, the officer requesting to resign shall be notified of the decision within 24 hours by the Student Body President.
a. Reasons for refusal can include but are not limited to:
i. Not adhering to the guidelines for resignation.
ii. Suspicion of coercion.
b. It should be noted that except in these or other rare cases, refusing a Letter of Intent to Resign can lead to complications, and refusals should be used sparingly.
Section 6. Exclusions.
The following circumstances shall be conduced as stated:
A. If the Student Body President is the officer to resign, the Vice President of Policy shall take his or her place in all situations that are required for the resignation to take place.
B. University Senator
a. Because the University Senator serves two governing bodies, this officer may not resign from the GSSC without resigning from the University Senate first.
b. The University Senate may be notified of the result of any resignation request regarding this officer.
C. Committee On Instruction Delegate
a. Because the Committee on Instruction Delegate serves two governing bodies, this officer may not resign from the GSSC without resigning from Committee on Instruction first.

b. The Committee On Instruction may be notified of the result of any resignation request regarding this officer.
Article VI. Impeachments
Section 1. Purpose.
A formal process to expel Officers of the GSSC for violations of the General Studies Student Council Constitution and these by-laws.
Section 2. Administrant.
The Executive Board (E-Board) of the GSSC shall administer all impeachments.
Section 3. Definitions.
A. Impeachment
a. A formal process in which a GSSC officer is accused of violations of the General Studies Student Council Constitution and By-laws; the outcome of which, leads to the removal of that officer from the GSSC or other punishment.
B. Punishment
a. A punitive action imposed by the GSSC as retribution for a violation of the General Studies Student Council Constitution and By-laws.
C. Expulsion
a. The removal of an officer from the GSSC.
Section 4. Timeline and Location.
A. Impeachments shall occur only while classes are in session.
B. Impeachment Reports shall be delivered Monday thru Friday, excluding reading days, finals, and university holidays.
C. Impeachment Proceedings shall be held in the regularly scheduled time and location of the GSSC General Body Meeting.
Section 5. Procedure.
The GSSC shall utilize the following procedure to impeach an officer:
A. Initiation of Impeachments:
a. Any Executive Officer of the GSSC may initiate impeachments.
b. That Executive Officer will create an Impeachment Report and deliver it to the Student Body President.
i. The Impeachment Report will contain:
1. Name and Office of the officer to be impeached.
2. Time and Location of the officer’s violations.
3. The name of each article and section in the Constitution or By-laws, which has been violated.
4. A description of specific events and actions of the officer, which were in violation of the Constitution or By-laws.
5. A recommendation for punishment or expulsion.

ii. If the Student Body President is the officer to be impeached, the Impeachment Report shall be delivered to the Vice President of Communications.
c. The Impeachment Report shall then be disseminated to the E-Board and to the officer to be impeached via their registered Columbia email address by the Student Body President or Vice President of Communications.
i. The Impeachment Report shall be considered official notice of impeachment.
d. The officer to be impeached shall have 48 hours upon receipt of the Impeachment Report to submit a written rebuttal to the E-Board.
i. This written rebuttal shall be received by the Student Body President and then shall be disseminated to the E-Board.
ii. If the Student Body President is the officer to be impeached, the written rebuttal shall be delivered to the Vice President of Communications.
iii. If the officer to be impeached fails to reply within 48 hours, he or she shall waive this right.
e. The Student Body President will publish the Impeachment Report and written rebuttal to the General Body of the GSSC at least 48 hours prior to the next scheduled GSSC General Body Meeting.
B. Impeachment Proceedings
a. The impeachment of an officer accused of the violations contained in an Impeachment Report shall commence during the next scheduled GSSC General Body Meeting following the receipt of that officer’s rebuttal by the General Body of the GSSC.
i. If the officer accused of violations has already been excused from the next meeting, prior to their receipt of the Impeachment Report, proceedings may not commence until the following week.
b. The Impeachment Proceedings shall take precedence over all other business.
c. The Executive Officer whom created the Impeachment Report shall address the General Body and initiate discussion for a vote on the punishment or expulsion of the officer accused of the violations, which are contained in the Impeachment Report.
i. The officer accused of the violations shall give a rebuttal statement to precede all other discussions.
1. If the officer accused of the violations is absent, he or she shall waive this right.
ii. The officer accused of the violations shall be given the opportunity to respond to all questions directed to him or her by the council.
1. If the officer accused of the violations is absent, he or she shall waive this right.
iii. No additional violations may be addressed outside of the Impeachment Report.
iv. No additional punishments or expulsion may be addressed outside of the Impeachment Report.

d. The Executive Officer whom created the Impeachment Report shall motion for a vote on the punishment or expulsion of the officer accused of the violations, which are contained in the Impeachment Report.
i. This vote shall be taken by secret ballot.
ii. This vote requires a 3/4-majority consensus to pass.
iii. There shall be no abstentions in this vote.
iv. The result of this vote shall be final and effective immediately.
1. The DOS shall be notified of the result of this vote.
Section 6. Exclusions.
The following circumstances shall be conduced as stated:
A. Transfer, Suspension, or Expulsion from GS.
a. Should an officer transfer, be suspended, or be expelled from GS, the officer shall be automatically impeached.
i. The officer shall be notified of his or her impeachment by the Student Body President or the Vice President of Communications.
ii. The notification requires no Impeachment Report or written rebuttal.
b. The officer shall be given 48 hours to resign.
c. If no resignation is accepted, the officer shall be expelled from the GSSC.
i. Expulsion is automatic, no vote shall be taken.
ii. The Student Body President shall notify the GSSC General Body and the DOS.
B. Resignations:
a. An officer of the GSSC may resign during their impeachment up to the time where Impeachment Proceedings have began discussions during the General Body Meeting as described in Article VI, Section 2, Line C of these by-laws.
b. Resignations and procedures shall be defined in Article IV of these by-laws.
c. If an officer of the GSSC successfully resigns, the impeachment shall close and no longer be considered a matter of public record.
C. University Senator
a. Because the University Senator serves two governing bodies, this officer may continue to serve their term on the University Senate upon impeachment, punishment, or expulsion by the GSSC.
b. The University Senate may be notified of the result of any impeachment proceedings regarding this officer.
D. Committee On Instruction Delegate
a. Because the Committee on Instruction Delegate serves two governing bodies, this officer may continue to serve their term on the Committee on Instruction upon impeachment, punishment, or expulsion by the GSSC.
b. The Committee On Instruction may be notified of the result of any impeachment proceedings regarding this officer.
E. Associates of the GSSC
a. Any Associate of the GSSC may be removed from their position by the relevant Executive Officer.
b. This removal shall be immediate and without rebuttal.

c. This removal shall be conducted at the discretion of the relevant Executive Officer.
Article VII. Successions
Section 1. Purpose.
A formal process for elected officers of the GSSC to assume a higher elected office and title, which is vacant.
Section 2. Administrant.
The Executive Board (E-Board) or Executive Board Elect (EBE) of the GSSC shall administer all successions.
Section 3. Definitions.
A. Succession
a. Shall be an automatic process as described in Article IV Elections, Appointments, Succession and Impeachment in the General Studies Student Council Constitution.
b. Shall only include officers that have been elected by the GS Student Body.
B. Order for Succession to the office of Student Body President:
a. Vice President of Policy
b. Vice President of Finance
c. Vice President of Communications
d. Vice President of Student Events
C. Order for Succession to the office of Senior Class President:
a. Senior Class Vice President
Section 4. Timeline and Location.
Successions shall be implemented immediately, when needed.
Section 5. Procedure.
An Officer GSSC shall utilize the following procedure to assume a higher elected office and title:
A. Student Body President:
a. Should the Student Body President become unable or ineligible to perform his or her duties, the next officer in the line of succession shall assume his or her duties.
i. This officer shall only vote in the event of a tie when acting as student body president.
ii. This officer shall assume the title of Acting Student Body President until one of the following occurs:
1. The Student Body President becomes able to perform his or her duties.
2. The Student Body President resigns as defined by Article V of these by-laws.
3. The Student Body President is expelled through impeachment as defined by Article VI of these by-laws.

iii. If the Student Body President should become able to perform his or her duties, the officer who assumed those duties shall resume his or her original office.
iv. If the Student Body President should resign or be expelled by impeachment, the officer who assumed those duties shall become the Student Body President.
b. If the Student Body President shall not have been chosen before the time fixed for the beginning of his or her term of office, or if the Student Body President elect shall have failed to qualify, then the next elected officer in the line of secession shall become Student Body President.
c. If the Student Body President shall not be willing to assume the office at the time fixed for the beginning of his or her term of office, then the next elected officer in the line of secession shall become Student Body President.
B. Senior Class President:
a. Should the Senior Class President become unable or ineligible to perform his or her duties, the Senior Class Vice President shall assume his or her duties.
i. This officer shall assume the title of Acting Senior Class President until one of the following occurs:
1. The Senior Class President becomes able to perform his or her duties.
2. The Senior Class President resigns as defined by Article V of these by-laws.
3. The Senior Class President is expelled through impeachment as defined by Article VI of these by-laws.
ii. If the Senior Class President should become able to perform his or her duties, the officer who assumed those duties shall resume his original office.
iii. If the Senior Class President should resign or be expelled by impeachment, the officer who assumed those duties shall become the Senior Class President.
b. If the Senior Class President shall not have been chosen before the time fixed for the beginning of his or her term of office, or if the Senior Class President elect shall have failed to qualify, then the Senior Class Vice President elect shall become Senior Class President.
c. If the Senior Class President shall not be willing to assume the office at the time fixed for the beginning of his or her term of office, then the Senior Class Vice President elect shall become Senior Class President.
Section 6. Exclusions.
The following circumstances shall be conduced as stated:
A. If an officer ascends to the office of Student Body President or Senior Class President, his or her office shall be left vacant.
a. This vacancy will be filled by appointment, as described in Article IV of these by-laws.

B. If there is no Senior Class Vice President then the office of Senior Class President shall be filled by appointment, as described in Article III or these by-laws.
C. Only an elected member of the council may succeed to the office of Student Body President.
a. If an appointed officer holds the next office in the line of succession, that officer shall be ineligible for succession, and the following elected officer in the line of succession shall ascend to the office of Student Body President.

b. If no elected officers remain in the line of succession to the office of Student Body President a Special Election shall take place as codified in Article III Elections of these by-laws.
i. Until the official result of that Special Election has been announced by an advisor from the Dean of Students office, the first appointed officer in the line of secession shall assume the duties of the office of Student Body
President.
1. When an appointed officer assumes the duties of the office of Student Body President, he or she shall assume the title of Acting Chairman of the General Studies Student Council.
2. This officer shall only vote in the event of a tie when acting as the chairman of the GSSC.
3. When the result of the Special Election has been announced by an
advisor from the Dean of Students office, the officer who assumed the duties of the office of Student Body President and the title of Chairman of the General Studies Student Council shall resume his or her original office.
D. Succession is codified in Article IV of the General Studies Student Council Constitution, and as such, it is an officer’s duty to comply with the line of succession.
a. Any officer who refuses may be subject to impeachment.
Article VIII. Meetings
Section 1. Council Meetings.
The following shall apply to the weekly regular meetings of the GSSC.
A. Purpose
a. The General Body of the GSSC shall hold meetings in order perform their organizational, administrative, and leadership functions as to best serve the GS Student Body and the General Studies Student Council Constitution
B. Time and Location
a. The GSSC shall hold weekly regular meetings each Tuesday at 7:35pm while fall and spring semester classes are in session.
b. The GSSC shall hold weekly regular meetings in the Jed D. Satow Conference Room on the fifth floor of Lerner Hall at Columbia University.
C. Quorum and Attendance
a. Quorum shall be 2/3 of all Officers of the GSSC.

b. Attendance at the Council Meetings shall be mandatory for all officers of the General Studies Student Council.
c. The Executive Board may grant a limited number of excused absences at their discretion, but any individual having more than four excused absences in a semester may be subject to impeachment.
i. Executive Officers may not excuse themselves.
d. Partial absence shall be considered for:
i. Arrival after the conclusion of the roll call at the beginning of a meeting or absence upon the adjournment of a meeting.
ii. Absence from a substantive portion greater than twenty five percent of a meeting, as determined by the start and end times of said meetings, at the discretion of the Student Body President.
e. Four partial absences shall be considered one unexcused absence.
D. Parliamentary Authority
a. The rules contained in the current edition of
Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised shall govern the GSSC in all cases to which they are applicable and in which they are not inconsistent with the General Studies Student Council Constitution, these by-laws, and any special rules of order the GSSC may adopt.
b. The Vice President of Policy shall serve as the Parliamentarian.
c. Only Officers of the GSSC may vote during council meetings.
i. Those who may vote are defined as Officers and listed in Article II. Officers of these by-laws
ii. The Student Body President may only vote in the event of a tie.
d. Absentee voting is not allowed.
Section 2. Executive Board Meetings.
The following shall apply to the meetings of the GSSC E-Board.
A. Purpose
a. The Executive Board of the GSSC shall hold meetings in order perform their organizational, administrative, and leadership functions as to best serve the GS Student Body and the General Studies Student Council Constitution
B. Time and Location
a. The GSSC shall hold weekly Executive Board Meetings, on a day and time at the Student Body President’s discretion.
b. The GSSC shall hold Executive Board Meetings in a location at the Student Body President’s discretion, at Columbia University.
c. The time and location of each Executive Board Meeting shall be announced to all Executive Officers at least one week prior to the meeting.
i. If a meeting announcement is not made before this time frame, than the rules of attendance for that meeting shall be suspended.
C. Quorum and Attendance
a. Quorum shall be a majority of all Executive Officers.
b. Attendance at the Executive Board Meetings shall be mandatory for all Executive
Officers.

c. The Student Body President may grant a limited number of excused absences at his or her discretion.
d. The president shall approve of anyone who is not in the E-Board attending executive sessions.
D. Parliamentary Authority
a. The Student Body President shall define and implement all parliamentary procedures for the Executive Board Meetings.
b. Absentee voting is not allowed.
Section 3. Committee Meetings.
The following shall apply to the meetings of the committees of the GSSC.
A. Purpose
a. The Committees of the GSSC shall hold meetings in order perform their organizational, administrative, and leadership functions as to best serve the GS Student Body and the General Studies Student Council Constitution
B. Times and Locations
a. The GSSC shall hold Committee Meetings weekly, while fall and spring semester classes are in session, on a day and time at each committee chairperson’s discretion.
b. The GSSC shall hold Committee Meetings in a location at each committee chairperson’s discretion, at Columbia University.
c. The time and location of each Committee Meeting shall be announced to all members of that committee at least one week prior to the meeting.
i. If a meeting announcement cannot be made before this time frame, than the rules of attendance for that meeting shall be suspended.
C. Quorum and Attendance
a. Quorum shall be determined by the committee chairperson.
b. Attendance at each Committee Meeting shall be mandatory for all members of that committee.
c. The Executive Board may grant a limited number of excused absences at their discretion, but any individual having more than four excused absences in a semester may be subject to impeachment.
i. The committee chairperson may only be excused by the Student Body President.
d. Partial absence shall be considered for:
i. Arrival after the conclusion of the roll call at the beginning of a meeting or absence upon the adjournment of a meeting.
ii. Absence from a substantive portion greater than twenty-five percent of a meeting, as determined by the start and end times of said meetings, at the discretion of the chairperson.
e. Four partial absences shall be considered one unexcused absence.
D. Parliamentary Authority
a. The committee chairperson shall define and implement all parliamentary procedures for his or her committee.
b. Absentee voting is not allowed.

Section 4. Special Meetings.
The following shall apply to any special meeting of the GSSC.
A. Purpose
a. The GSSC may hold Special Meetings as needed throughout the academic year in order perform their organizational, administrative, and leadership functions as to best serve the GS Student Body and the General Studies Student Council
Constitution.
B. Times and Locations:
a. The times and locations of these Special Meetings shall be announced to all relevant members at least one week prior to the meeting.
i. If a meeting announcement cannot be made before this time frame, than the rules of attendance for that meeting shall be suspended.
C. Quorum and Attendance
a. Quorum shall be a majority of required attendees.
b. Attendance requirements for these meetings shall be at the discretion of the Executive Board.
D. Parliamentary Authority
a. The chairperson of any Special Meetings shall define and implement all parliamentary procedures for his or her meeting.
b. Absentee voting is not allowed.
Section 5. Electronic Meetings
The following shall apply to any electronic meetings of the GSSC.
A. Purpose
a. The GSSC may hold Electronic Meetings as needed to perform their organizational, administrative, and leadership functions as to best serve the GS Student Body and the General Studies Student Council Constitution.
b. The GSSC shall hold Electronic Meetings only when such issues need to be addressed before the next scheduled Council Meeting.
B. Times and Locations:
a. Electronic Meetings shall be conducted via e-mails sent to each Officer’s official Columbia University e-mail address.
b. Electronic Meetings shall be asynchronous, lasting for no longer than 72 consecutive hours.
C. Quorum and Attendance
a. Quorum shall be a response from a majority of all Officers of the GSSC.
b. Attendance shall be optional.
c. Attendance shall be determined by an appropriate response within the 72-hour timeframe.
i. Failure to reply within 72 hours shall result with a Not Voting (NV) being recorded.
D. Procedure:
a. The Student Body President shall email each Officer with the issues to be voted on divided by number.

b. Each Officer will “reply all” with his or her response for each issue.
i. Each response may be a yes, no, or abstain
ii. If an Officer chooses to abstain, he or she shall attach a brief statement explaining why.
c. Absentee voting is not allowed.
d. The results of these votes shall be recorded and added to the minutes of the following Council Meeting.
Section 6. Other Meetings.
The following shall apply to any other meetings attended by members of the GSSC.
A. Many members must attending meetings for groups outside the GSSC.
B. Times and Locations:
a. Shall be defined by the hosting organization.
C. Attendance:
a. Attendance for other meetings, as defined by the General Studies Student Council Constitution and Article II. Officers of these by-laws, shall be mandatory.
b. The Executive Board may grant excused absences at their discretion.
i. Executive Officers may not excuse themselves.
D. Parliamentary Authority:
a. Shall be defined by the hosting organization.
Article IX. Executive Board
Section 1. Members.
The following Officers of the GSSC shall serve on the Executive Board and be known as the Executive Officers of the GSSC:
A. Student Body President
B. Vice President of Policy
C. Vice President of Finance
D. Vice President of Communications
E. Vice President of Student Events
Section 2. Purpose.
The Executive Board of the GSSC shall perform organizational,
administrative, and leadership functions to best serve the GS Student Body and the General Studies Student Council Constitution.
Section 2. Authorities and Responsibilities.
In addition to the authorities and responsibilities defined by the General Studies Student Council Constitution and Article II, Section 1 Executive Officers of these by-laws, the E-Board shall have the power to:
A. Establish broad policies and objectives for the GSSC.

B. Hold meetings as needed to best serve the GS Student Body and the General Studies Student Council Constitution.
C. Nominate candidates for the offices of the GSSC as described in Article IV Appointments of these by-laws.
D. Impeach Officers of the GSSC, as described in Article VI Impeachments of these by-laws.
E. Ensure the availability of adequate financial resources for the GSSC and approve of expenditures for less than $500.
F. Speak on behalf of the GSSC.
Section 3. Rules of the Board.
The Student Body President may adopt rules and policies for the E-board, in order to best serve the GS Student Body and the General Studies Student Council Constitution, so long as such rules do not contradict that constitution or these by-laws.
Section 4. Exclusions
The authorities and responsibilities of the E-Board, which are supported by the General Studies Student Council Constitution and these by-laws, are including but not limited to Article IX, Section 2 of these by-laws.
Article X. Committees
Section 1. Purpose.
The GSSC shall form committees as to best serve the GS Student Body and the General Studies Student Council Constitution.
Section 2. Administrant.
The Executive Board (E-Board) of the GSSC shall form and administer all committees.
Section 3. Composition.
A. Standing Committees:
a. The GSSC shall have four Standing Committees as follows:
i. The Policy Committee
ii. The Finance Committee
iii. The Communications Committee
iv. The Student Events Committee
b. The Standing Committees of the GSSC shall each be chaired by a Vice President of the GSSC.
c. The Standing Committees of the GSSC may be composed of Officers, Associates, and any other student or alumni of Columbia University, as needed to best serve the GS Student Body and the General Studies Student Council Constitution.
d. The Standing Committees of the GSSC shall be conducted as described in Article VIII Meetings of these by-laws.
B. Sub-committees:
a. The E-board may form sub-committees as need to best serve the GS Student Body and the General Studies Student Council Constitution.

b. The Sub-committees of the GSSC shall each be subservient to one of the Standing Committees of the GSSC.
c. The Sub-committees of the GSSC shall each be chaired by an officer from that relevant Standing Committee.
d. The Sub-committees of the GSSC shall be conducted as described in Article VIII Meetings of theses by-laws.
C. Special Committees:
a. The GSSC may form Special Committees as need to best serve the GS Student Body and the General Studies Student Council Constitution.
b. The Student Body President shall appoint the chair of any Special Committee which is formed.
c. The Special Committees of the GSSC shall be conducted as described in Article VIII Meetings of theses by-laws.
Article XI. Amendments
Section 1. Purpose.
A formal process for the GSSC to amend these by-laws.
Section 2. Administrant.
The Vice President of Policy shall administer all amendments to these by-laws.
Section 3. Definitions.
A. Amendment
a. The process of changing or adding to these by-laws.
B. Revision
a. The process of rewriting these by-laws.
Section 4. Timeline and Location.
A. Amendments shall occur only while classes are in session.
B. Proposed amendments shall be disseminated to the Officers of the GSSC at least 72 hours before they are to be voted on.
C. Amendment votes shall be held in the regularly scheduled time and location of the GSSC General Body Meeting.
Section 5. Procedure.
The GSSC shall utilize the following procedure to amend these by-laws:
A. Notification
a. Any Officer of the GSSC may notify the Vice President of Policy in the case of a problem or potential addition to the GSSC By-laws.
b. The Vice President of Policy shall review all inquiries.
B. Conclusion
a. After the problem or addition has been reviewed, the Vice President of Policy shall do one of the following:

i. Create an Amendment to the article in the by-laws, which needs to be addressed.
1. This amendment may replace the original wording in the appropriate article or section, or
2. this amendment may add to the original wording in the appropriate article or section.
ii. Create an Amendment to the by-laws, which shall add an additional article and/or sections to the document.
iii. Inform the notifying officer that no addition or change shall be made.
C. Dissemination and Voting
a. If the Vice President of Policy creates an Amendment to the GSSC By-laws, it shall be approved by a 3/5-majority vote of quorum of the GSSC.
b. All amendments shall be disseminated to the Officers of the GSSC at least 72 hours before they are to be voted on.
Section 6. Exclusions.
The following circumstances shall be conduced as stated:
A. No Amendments may be created which are in violation of the General Studies Student Council Constitution or the rules and regulation of Columbia University.
B. If more than 25% of these by-laws are to be altered at any one time, the result shall be known as a revision of these by-laws.
a. Revised by-laws shall be labeled by edition.

A Few Words About Us

The purpose of the General Studies Student Council (GSSC) of Columbia University is to represent the undergraduate population of the School of General Studies by pursuing academic, political, social, and administrative initiatives.

Get in Touch with Us

Address: Satow Conference Room, Tuesdays 7:45-9:00 pm

E-mail: GSSCCommunications@columbia.edu

Copyright 2015 - GSSC.All Rights Reserved

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